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Výživa ako taká patrí k základným a nezastupiteľným faktorom podmieňujúcim zdravý telesný a duševný vývoj človeka. Má poskytovať živiny potrebné na udržanie životnej aktivity, zdravia, rastu a rozmnožovania. Pod plnohodnotnou výživou sa rozumie výživa, pri ktorej sú podľa potrieb človeka zastúpené všetky zložky výživy, a to najmä tie, ktoré si telo nevie vytvoriť. Takými zložkami sú voda, energické zložky proteíny, sacharidy a lipidy v požadovanej štruktúre, pomere a obsahom tak, aby bola pokrytá energia, ďalej vláknina a s ňou aj potrebné inhibičné zložky, vitamíny a minerálne látky a viacero biologicky aktívnych látok.



Potreby výživy osôb v produktívnom veku sú podmienené určitými faktormi ako pohlavie, vek, charakter práce (fyzickej záťaže) a iné osobitnosti. Je všeobecne známe, že muži majú cca o 10% vyšší metabolizmus ako ženy, v priemere o 15% vyššiu telesnú hmotnosť, väčší podiel aktívnej telesnej hmoty (kostrového svalstva) a vyššiu pracovnú výkonnosť. Preto sa ženy nečudujte, že postava vášho otca, manžela, syna či brata je rovnaká aj po zjedení segedínskeho guláša so siedmymi knedľami, kdež to vy by ste sa ráno zobudili s jednou bradou navyše.

Priemerný energetický príjem je 9 720 kJ/deň (2 313 kcal) u mužov a 6 870 kJ/deň (1 632 kcal) u žien. Ten sa ale môže meniť podľa faktorov ako je vek, fyzická záťaž a pod. Denná potreba energie sa od 25 rokov postupne znižuje k 80.-temu roku života takmer o 1/3, čo sa plne zvažuje pri jej stanovení pre vyššie vekové skupiny.

Potreba energie závislá od veku života/deň
koniec 3. desaťročia..................................................................100%
koniec 4. desaťročia....................................................................97%
koniec 5. desaťročia....................................................................93%
koniec 6. desaťročia....................................................................85%
koniec 7. desaťročia....................................................................78%
koniec 8. desaťročia....................................................................68%

Zvýšený alebo znížený príjem energie treba brať do úvahy podľa charakteru práce - u žien v závislosti na ľahkej, stredne namáhavej až namáhavej práce možno zvýšiť energetický príjem od 10 do 21%. U mužov podľa pracovného vyťaženia - ľahkej, stredne ťažkej až ťažkej práce možno príjem zvýšiť dokonca od 15 až do 35%. Osobitnými príkladmi pre výživu je obdobie ženy počas gravidity či dojčenia, kedy je príjem energie až 11 000 kJ/deň.

Hlavnou zásadou správnej výživy je vyváženosť jej štruktúry, kde percentuálny podiel základných živín na energetickej hodnote dennej stravy má vyzerať asi takto:

10-12% bielkovín : 25-30% tuky : 55-65% sacharidy

Z hľadiska zachovania zdravia sa odporúča kombinácia živočíšnych a rastlinných bielkovín v pomere 1:1, respektíve zastúpenie bielkovín v pomere 50-60% živočíšnych a 40-50% rastlinných, pričom sa veľký dôraz kladie na prítomnosť esenciálnych aminokyselín, ktoré si organizmus nevie vytvoriť sám, tak ich musí prijať formou potravy. Patria sem arginín, histidín, isoleucín, leucín, lyzín, methionín, phenylalanín, taurín, threonín, tryptofán a valín.

Sacharidy sú pre ľudský organizmus dôležitým zdrojom energie. Nadbytočný cukor sa z 30-40 % premieňa na tuk a prispieva k nadmernej tučnote, preto treba dbať na primeraný príjem podľa odporúčaní. Z hľadiska modernej výživy najvýznamnejší v oblasti sacharidov je efekt komplexných sacharidov, t.j. vlákniny.

Osobitné miesto v tukoch majú tzv. omega-3 mastné kyseliny, ktoré sú obsiahnuté v rybách. Tieto kyseliny pomáhajú v ochrane cievnej sústavy a srdca a okrem toho zmenšujú koncentráciu cholesterolu a tukov v krvi.

Pre lepšiu orientáciu vo svete správneho stravovania sa držte nasledovnej potravinovej pyramídy. Základňu tvoria potraviny, ktoré by mal váš jedálny lístok obsahovať najviac. Postupne sa výber zužuje na tie pokrmy, ktoré by sme mali konzumovať menej často až sa im vyhýbať.


Len sporadicky si doprajte červené mäso, maslo, rafinované cukry vo forme bieleho pečiva, bielej ryže a cestovín, zemiaky, sladené džúsy, sladkosti a soľ.

Mlieko a mliečne výrobky si servírujte 1-2 krát za deň kvôli potrebnému príjmu vápnika.

Strukoviny, orechy, ryby, hydina a vajcia by mali tvoriť približne 15% stravy.

Ovocie, zelenina, zdravé oleje, celozrnné výrobky predstavujú až 40% správnej výživy.

Základom je ale pohybová aktivita a zásady nielen správneho stravovania, ale celkovej správnej životosprávy ako takej.



Správna strava by mala byť
a, striedma - týka sa kvantitatívnej stránky potravy - nadmernosť vedie k tukovým zásobám a opak k úbytku telesnej hmotnosti a k deficiencii živín.
b, pestrá - strava by mala byť zastúpená všetkými nutrientami ako sú bielkoviny, sacharidy, tuky, vitamíny a minerálne látky, podobne ako by mala obsahovať všetky potravinové skupiny - obilniny, ovocie, zeleninu, mlieko, mäso a ich produkty.
c, vyvážená - vyvážený pomer základných živín.


Základné piliere zdravého stravovania
1. Konzumujte pestrú stravu - uplatňujte mnohostrannosť.
2. Frekvencia jedál by mala byť 4-5 krát za deň - vyššia frekvencia & menšie porcie. Posledné jedlo minimálne 2-3 hodiny pred spánkom.
3. Dodržujte rovnováhu optimálny príjem verzus optimálny výdaj energie.
4. Obmedzte príjem tukov na maximálne 30% prijímanej energie a zvýšte príjem nenasýtených mastných kyselín (MUFA, PUFA).
5. Obmedzte príjem bielkovín na 10-15%, t.j. 0,8 g/kg/deň.
6. Pomer komplexných sacharidov voči jednoduchým by mal byť 9:1.
7. Zvýšte príjem vlákniny na 20-40 g denne vo forme zeleniny, ovocia, celozrnných výrobkov.
8. Zvýšte príjem mikronutrientov - vitamínov a minerálnych látok.
9. Obmedzte konzum alkoholu na maximálne 10% z prijímanej energie.
10.Obmedzte spotrebu kuchynskej soli na maximálne 5-7,5 g denne (skutočná potreba je menej než 1,25 g).

Okrem týchto zásad treba dohliadať aj na pitný režim, pohybovú aktivitu a samotnú technologickú úpravu potravín.

Ideálna hmotnosť
Pod pojmom ideálna hmotnosť sa chápe hmotnosť s najvyššou pravdepodobnosťou dožitia sa dlhého veku. Dá sa teoreticky vypočítať podľa vzorcov:
muži......... ideálna hmotnosť = ( 0,665 x výška v cm ) - 44,1
ženy......... ideálna hmotnosť = ( 0,593 x výška v cm ) - 38,6

Podľa výsledkov sa dá stanoviť stupeň možnej obezity
a, ľahká obezita...................... 120-140 % ideálnej telesnej hmotnosti
b, výrazná obezita................... 140 - 200 % ideálnej telesnej hmotnosti
c, morbidná obezita................. nad 200 % ideálnej telesnej hmotnosti

Najjednoduchším a najpoužívanejším spôsobom na výpočet ideálnej telesnej hmotnosti v bežnej praxi je tzv. Brocov index.
muži........... telesná výška (cm) - 100
ženy........... telesná výška (cm) - 100 - 10 %

Najznámejším je ale tzv. Quetelov index - Body Mass Index (BMI). Vypočíta sa tak, že delíme hmotnosť v kg druhou mocninou výšky v metroch.
BMI = hmotnosť (kg)
.............výška (m)2

podvýživa, telesná slabosť.........................................................pod 20
normálne hmotnosť...........................................................................20 - 24,9
nadmerná hmotnosť (ľahká obezita).................................................25 - 29,9
výrazná obezita (obezita stredného stupňa)....................................30 - 39,9
morbídna obezita (obezita ťažkého stupňa)..............................nad 40

Hodnoty nad 27,2 u mužov a 27,3 u žien predstavujú riziká pre vznik hypertenzie, hypercholesterolémie a diabetu. U žien naviac ešte i častejší výskyt rakoviny krčka maternice, váječníkov a prsníka, u mužov rakoviny tračníka, rekta a prostaty.

Postava človeka sa z antropologického hľadiska delí na 2 typy. Nakoľko je prebytočný tuk u mužov lokalizovaný predovšetkým v horných partiách tela (brucho, ramená, záhlavie), volá sa tento typ androidný (jablkový, mužský). Na rozdiel od toho sa u žien prebytočný tuk ukladá v dolných častiach tela (boky, stehná) a tento typ sa volá gynoidný (hruškový, ženský).

Na záver dámam, ktoré sa snažia schudnúť, prikladám percentuálnu stratu hmotnosti počas doby chudnutia, ktorú by zo zdravotného hľadiska nemali prevyšovať.

Doba chudnutia.........................................................Veľkosť úbytku v %
1 týždeň.................................................................................> 2
1 mesiac.................................................................................> 5
3 mesiace...............................................................................> 7,5
6 mesiacov.............................................................................>10

Ja viem, ľahko sa o tom píše, ale ťažšie sa to realizuje. A ešte ťažšie, keď zo schránky vyťahujete akciový leták a hneď z titulky sa na Vás usmievajú Tatranky za 9,90........



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